Age of Enlightenment

عبدالرحمن حسن علي
مؤســس المنتدى
مؤســس المنتدى
الجنسية :
عدد المشاركات عدد المشاركات : 16021
تقييم المشترين تقييم المشترين : 49
واتساب واتساب : 201289700022
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في السبت 9 أكتوبر - 0:07

The Age of Enlightenment (or simply the Enlightenment) isthe era in Western philosophy and intellectual, scientific, andcultural life, centered upon the 18th century, in which reason wasadvocated as the primary source for legitimacy and authority.

Developingsimultaneously in France, Great Britain, Germany, the Netherlands,Italy, Spain, the American colonies, and Portugal, the movement wasbuoyed by Atlantic Revolutions, especially the success of the AmericanRevolution, in breaking free of the British Empire. Most of Europe wascaught up, including the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Russia, andScandinavia, along with Latin America in instigating the HaitianRevolution. The authors of the American Declaration of Independence,the United States Bill of Rights, the French Declaration of the Rightsof Man and of the Citizen, and the Polish-Lithuanian Constitution ofMay 3, 1791, were motivated by Enlightenment principles.[1]

The"Enlightenment" was not a single movement or school of thought, forthese philosophies were often mutually contradictory or divergent. TheEnlightenment was less a set of ideas than it was a set of values. Atits core was a critical questioning of traditional institutions,customs, and morals, and a strong belief in rationality and science.Thus, there was still a considerable degree of similarity betweencompeting philosophies.[2] Some historians also include the late 17thcentury, which is typically known as the Age of Reason or Age ofRationalism, as part of the Enlightenment; however, most historiansconsider the Age of Reason to be a prelude to the ideas of theEnlightenment.[3] Modernity, by contrast, is used to refer to theperiod after The Enlightenment; albeit generally emphasizing socialconditions rather than specific philosophies.

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النّاجحون يبحثون دائماً عن الفرص لمساعدة الآخرين بينما الفاشلون يسألون دائماً ماذا سوف نستفيد نحن من ذلك
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