KW

What Is Racism

عبدالرحمن حسن علي
مؤســس المنتدى
مؤســس المنتدى
ذكر
الجنسية :
عدد المشاركات عدد المشاركات : 16042
تقييم المشترين تقييم المشترين : 49
واتساب واتساب : 201289700022
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو

في الجمعة 15 أكتوبر - 16:59



Racism and Anti-Racism

"Racism"almost always conjures up visions of white suppression of non-whitepeoples. There is a long history of "racism," however, among "white"peoples toward other "whites" and among "non-white" peoples towardother "non-whites."

Some Examples of Racism

Some historic "white versus white" racism:



* Norse toward anyone not Norse
* English toward Danes and Germans
* English toward Welsh, Scots, Irish
* "Lowland" Scots vs. Highland Scots
* The division between Quebecois and the rest of Canada



Thereis racism in Iraq and Syria against ethnic Kurdi, in Pakistan againstTamil, in Indonesia against ethnic Chinese. In India, there is stillconflict between Hindu and Sikh; in Indonesia, conflicts betweenChristian and Muslim – in Maluku, Poso, Mataram, Medan, etc. – havecontinued for the last 2-1/2 years.



"Racism" refers todiscriminatory practices by the predominantly white social majorityagainst Maoris in New Zealand, against aborigines in Australia.



Inthe mid-East, "racism" defines the treatment of Israel and Israelis byArabs and Arab states, and the treatment of Palestinians within Israeliborders, as much or more than "religion" does.



Thecurrent conflict in Northern Ireland is a complexity of religious,political and emotional issues. Like conflicts in the Middle East andthe Balkans, the violence on each side is fueled by bitterness overviolence by the other. The root of the conflict goes back to the daysof English oppression of the native Irish – institutionalized racism.



Theintolerance of Serbs toward Albanians in the Balkans made worldheadlines. Less dramatically publicized is long-standing racisttreatment of the Roma (gypsies) in the Balkans, and elsewhere inEurope. In the Holocaust of Germany's Final Solution during the SecondWorld War, Roma were targeted for extermination as viciously as Jews.



ThroughoutLatin America and the Caribbean, the descendants of the "conquering"empires – Portugal and Spain – rank higher socially and economicallythan descendants of the indigenous peoples. Latin America also has itsown share of racism toward Blacks.



Basque nationalism isproudly racist, defining "a pure Basque" as free of any "taint" ofSpanish, Jewish or Arab blood. Sabino de Arana y Giori, founder of theBasque National Party, even developed a new Basque language purged ofall Spanish words.



The Basque racism, in turn, is areaction to Spanish racism: the enforcement of one culture, onelanguage and one people, or as Franco put it, "España, una, grande ylibre."



Africans suffering drought, famine, plague andwar have claimed that racism obstructs U.S. aid, most recently in thematter of AIDS vaccinations.



Patterns of racism changeover time. In the early days of the U.S., Irish immigrants were heavilydiscriminated against. Both World Wars heightened racism toward"Krauts" in the U.S.; and World War II saw internment ofJapanese-American citizens by the U.S. government. Tibetan exilesfleeing the racism of the Chinese invading Tibet found racist treatmentin many host countries, too. Islamic students in non-Islamic countrieshave often experienced racism; it has gotten worse as the actions ofIslamic extremists in the mid-East gain more attention








What Is Racism?



Amore universal definition of racism is "Prejudice or discrimination byone group toward others perceived as a different 'race', plus the powerto enforce it." Groups may be almost identical physiologically, yet bedivided against each other on the basis of culture, language, religion,nationality, or any combination of the above.



Racism requires four elements:

1. The belief in separate, definable and recognizable "races."
2. The belief that one "race" is superior to others.
3. Possession of power by the "superior race" to act against "inferior races" without effective defense or redress.
4. Action that is both arbitrary and harmful.



Prejudicethat remains an attitude can be emotionally painful and demoralizing,but it is not racism until it is put into action. The actions ofindividuals, in turn, are harmful to the degree that they are supportedby power. Imagine, for example, that a Muslim applied to rent anapartment from a Hindu landlord. If the landlord hates Muslimspersonally but rents the apartment and treats the tenant on an equalbasis with any other in charging rent, maintaining the apartment, etc,that is an example of prejudice but not of racism. If the landlordrefuses to rent the apartment to a Muslim, the landlord's action isindividual racism, but can be only a temporary setback if it is notsupported by the society. If, however, the rest of the tenants andneighbors support the landlord's decision, if no local media find it tobe news, if the applicant finds no official avenue for appeal orredress, that is institutionalized racism






source

http://www.anitra.net/activism/racism/index.html









█║▌│█│║▌║││█║▌│║█║▌
النّاجحون يبحثون دائماً عن الفرص لمساعدة الآخرين بينما الفاشلون يسألون دائماً ماذا سوف نستفيد نحن من ذلك
ĵǾђŇ ṀỒЯЯĬŞỠЙ
معلن جديد
معلن جديد
ذكر
الجنسية :
عدد المشاركات عدد المشاركات : 222
تقييم المشترين تقييم المشترين : 16
العمر العمر : 24
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو

في الجمعة 15 أكتوبر - 19:45



 
عبدالرحمن حسن علي
مؤســس المنتدى
مؤســس المنتدى
ذكر
الجنسية :
عدد المشاركات عدد المشاركات : 16042
تقييم المشترين تقييم المشترين : 49
واتساب واتساب : 201289700022
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو

في الثلاثاء 16 نوفمبر - 8:46

يسلموا اخي الغالي على الذوق
و سعيد بمرورك




█║▌│█│║▌║││█║▌│║█║▌
النّاجحون يبحثون دائماً عن الفرص لمساعدة الآخرين بينما الفاشلون يسألون دائماً ماذا سوف نستفيد نحن من ذلك
إرسال مساهمة في موضوع
اعلانات مشابهة